Green Library. S53 Unknown. More options. Find it at other libraries via WorldCat Limited preview. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents Beyond science and religion : the Scopes trial in historical context The textbook trust and state adoption Textbooks and their makers : authors, editors, salesmen, and readers Civic biology and the origin of the antievolution movement How Scopes was framed The evolution of the New civic biology Biology textbooks in an era of science and religion Losing the word : measuring the impact of Scopes.
Shapiro convincingly dispels many conventional assumptions about the Scopes "monkey" trial. Most view it as an event driven primarily by a conflict between science and religion. Countering this, Shapiro shows the importance of timing: the Scopes trial occurred at a crucial moment in the history of biology textbook publishing, education reform in Tennessee, and progressive school reform across the country. He places the trial in this broad context - alongside American Protestant anti evolution sentiment - and in doing so sheds new light on the trial and the historical relationship of science and religion in America.
For the first time we see how religious objections to evolution became a prevailing concern to the American textbook industry even before the Scopes trial began. Shapiro explores both the development of biology textbooks leading up to the trial and the ways in which the textbook industry created new books and presented them as "responses" to the trial. Today, the controversy continues over textbook warning labels, making Shapiro's study - particularly as it plays out in one of America's most famous trials - an original contribution to a timely discussion. Bibliographic information.
Browse related items Start at call number: QH S53 Shapiro instead emphasizes that the Scopes trial was the result of particular circumstances, such as politics postponing adoptions of new textbooks. The trial escalated the political and legal conflict between strict creationists and scientists to influence the extent to which evolution would be taught as science in Arizona and California schools. Before the Dayton trial only the South Carolina , Oklahoma , and Kentucky legislatures had dealt with anti-evolution laws or riders to educational appropriations bills.
After Scopes was convicted, creationists throughout the United States sought similar anti-evolution laws for their states. By , there were 13 states, both in the North and South , that considered some form of anti-evolution law. At least 41 bills or resolutions were introduced into the state legislatures, with some states facing the issue repeatedly. Nearly all of these efforts were rejected, but Mississippi and Arkansas did put anti-evolution laws on the books after the Scopes trial that would outlive the Butler Act.
In the Southwest, anti-evolution crusaders included ministers R. Beal and Aubrey L. They sought to ban evolution as a topic for study in the schools or, failing that, to relegate it to the status of unproven hypothesis perhaps taught alongside the biblical version of creation. Educators, scientists, and other distinguished laymen favored evolution.
This struggle occurred later in the Southwest than elsewhere and persisted through the Sputnik era after when it collapsed, as the national mood inspired increased trust in science in general and support for evolution in particular. The opponents of evolution made a transition from the anti-evolution crusade of the s to the creation science movement of the s.
Despite some similarities between these two causes, the creation science movement represented a shift from overtly religious to covertly religious objections to evolutionary theory — sometimes described as a Wedge Strategy — raising what it claimed was scientific evidence in support of a literal interpretation of the Bible.
Creation science also differed in terms of popular leadership, rhetorical tone, and sectional focus. It lacked a prestigious leader like Bryan, utilized pseudoscientific rather than religious rhetoric,  and was a product of California and Michigan instead of the South. The Scopes trial had both short- and long-term effects in the teaching of science in schools in the United States. Though often portrayed as a blow to the fundamentalists in the form of waning public opinion, the victory was not complete. The effects of the Scopes Trial on high school biology texts has not been unanimously agreed by scholars.
Of the most widely used textbooks after the trial, only one included the word "evolution" in its index; the relevant page includes biblical quotations.
Adam R. Shapiro
Miller and Grabiner suggest that as the anti-evolutionist movement died out, biology textbooks began to include the previously removed evolutionary theory. This account of history has also been challenged. In Trying Biology Robert Shapiro examines many of the eminent biology textbooks in the —s, and finds that while they may have avoided the word evolution, the overall focus on the subject was not greatly diminished. He suggests that the avoidance of the word evolution was enough to satisfy anti-evolutionists, but the books were still largely implicitly evolution based.
In the National Defense Education Act was passed with the encouragement of many legislators who feared the United States education system was falling behind that of the Soviet Union. The act yielded textbooks, produced in cooperation with the American Institute of Biological Sciences, which stressed the importance of evolution as the unifying principle of biology. The greatest backlash was in Texas where attacks were launched in sermons and in the press. However, in addition to federal support, a number of social trends had turned public discussion in favor of evolution.
These included increased interest in improving public education, legal precedents separating religion and public education, and continued urbanization in the South. This led to a weakening of the backlash in Texas, as well as to the repeal of the Butler Law in Tennessee in Edward J. More than newspaper reporters from all parts of the country and two from London were in Dayton. Two movie cameramen had their film flown out daily in a small plane from a specially prepared airstrip. Mencken's trial reports were heavily slanted against the prosecution and the jury, which were "unanimously hot for Genesis ".
He mocked the town's inhabitants as "yokels" and "morons". He called Bryan a "buffoon" and his speeches "theologic bilge". In contrast, he called the defense "eloquent" and "magnificent". Even today, some American creationists , fighting in courts and state legislatures to demand that creationism be taught on an equal footing with evolution in the schools, have claimed that it was Mencken's trial reports in that turned public opinion against creationism.
The trial also brought publicity to the town of Dayton, Tennessee, and was hatched as a publicity stunt. The whole matter has assumed the portion of Dayton and her merchants endeavoring to secure a large amount of notoriety and publicity with an open question as whether Scopes is a party to the plot or not. A museum of trial events in its basement contains such memorabilia as the microphone used to broadcast the trial, trial records, photographs, and an audiovisual history.
Every July, local people re-enact key moments of the trial in the courtroom. Anticipating that Scopes would be found guilty, the press fitted the defendant for martyrdom and created an onslaught of ridicule, and hosts of cartoonists added their own portrayals to the attack. For example:. Overwhelmingly, the butt of these jokes was the prosecution and those aligned with it: Bryan, the city of Dayton, the state of Tennessee, and the entire South, as well as fundamentalist Christians and anti-evolutionists.
Rare exceptions were found in the Southern press, where the fact that Darrow had saved Leopold and Loeb from the death penalty continued to be a source of ugly humor.
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The most widespread form of this ridicule was directed at the inhabitants of Tennessee. Attacks on Bryan were frequent and acidic: Life awarded him its "Brass Medal of the Fourth Class," for having "successfully demonstrated by the alchemy of ignorance hot air may be transmuted into gold, and that the Bible is infallibly inspired except where it differs with him on the question of wine, women, and wealth".
Famously vituperative attacks came from journalist H. Mencken , whose syndicated columns from Dayton for The Baltimore Sun drew vivid caricatures of the "backward" local populace, referring to the people of Rhea County as " Babbits ", "morons", "peasants", "hill-billies", "yaps", and "yokels". He chastised the "degraded nonsense which country preachers are ramming and hammering into yokel skulls".
However, Mencken did enjoy certain aspects of Dayton, writing,. The town, I confess, greatly surprised me. I expected to find a squalid Southern village, with darkies snoozing on the horse-blocks, pigs rooting under the houses and the inhabitants full of hookworm and malaria. What I found was a country town full of charm and even beauty—a somewhat smallish but nevertheless very attractive Westminster or Balair.
He described Rhea County as priding itself on a kind of tolerance or what he called "lack of Christian heat", opposed to outside ideas but without hating those who held them. Elmer Chubb", but the claims that Chubb would drink poison and preach in lost languages were ignored as commonplace by the people of Dayton, and only Commonweal magazine bit. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. On the trial's seventh day, proceedings were moved outdoors because of excessive heat. William Jennings Bryan seated, left is being questioned by Clarence Darrow.
Main article: Creation—evolution controversy. Archived from the original on May 20, Media Perspectives on Intelligent Design and Evolution. U of Georgia Press. Reluctant Modernism: American Thought and Culture, — Retrieved October 5, Szasz, "William B.
Riley and the Fight against Teaching of Evolution in Minnesota. Thy Kingdom Come. Basic Books. The State , at end of opinion filed January 17, The court did not address the question of how the assessment of the minimum possible statutory fine, when the defendant had been duly convicted, could possibly work any prejudice against the defendant. Tennessee State Library and Archives. Retrieved November 13, UMKC Law. Retrieved April 15, Center of the Storm. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Bryan College. Retrieved January 18, July 21, Retrieved February 28, Journal of American History. Outlook July 29, , pp. Cambridge, Mass. John Thomas Scopes; complete stenographic report of the court test of the Tennessee anti-evolution act at Dayton, July 10 to 21, , including speeches and arguments of attorneys , New York: Da Capo Press, pp. John Thomas Scopes; complete stenographic report of the court test of the Tennessee anti-evolution act at Dayton, July 10 to 21, , including speeches and arguments of attorneys , New York: Da Capo Press, p.
Anchor Press , p. State , Tenn. Thus, Scopes' constitutional defense on establishment of religion grounds rested—and had to rest—solely on the state constitution, as there was no federal Establishment Clause protection available to him. See Court's opinion. See generally Incorporation doctrine and Everson v.
Board of Education a seminal U. Supreme Court opinion finally applying the Establishment Clause against states in Christian History 16 3 : pp. University of Chicago Press.
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Georgia Historical Quarterly. Halliburton, Jr. Curtis, "Mississippi's Anti-Evolution Law of ". Journal of Mississippi History 48 1 : pp. Journal of the Southwest 33 2 : pp. Ladouceur, Journal of the History of Biology, Vol. Journal of American Culture.
Scopes Trial - Wikipedia
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